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VEHICLE FORWARD LIGHTING CONTROL
With the addition of driving lamps, useful lighting scenarios become available which are not supported by existing wiring and controls. This document describes a lighting control system designed to operate retro-fitted driving lamps in a manner that seeks to make the best of the modification.
This system is fitted to the Ford Granada MK2 Estate A103 TJN and the modifications to the radiator grille notified to the insurers. The functionality of the lighting controller conforms to all regulations in force at the time of fitting - April 2005.
‘Driving lamps?produce a combination beam which consists of a long range element similar to that produced by spotlamps plus flat side lobes similar to, but not usually as wide as, foglamps. Because they will dazzle oncoming motorists they are subject to the same restrictions in use as main beam headlamps and ideally should only operate when main beam headlamps are switched on.
Controls should be within easy reach of the driver and comfortably operable without the need for the driver to look away from the road to find them - as with every other aspect of vehicle design, the easier a vehicle is to drive, the easier it is to drive it well. Warning lamps should be clearly visible but not excessively bright.
The controller described here conforms to these fundamental requirements and adds useful functionality to forward lighting. Two extra features have also been fitted - an additional single tone horn (low) and a central decal light. The additional horn is meant to better reflect the size and age of the vehicle (the horn which is fitted was manufactured in the 1940s), and the central decal light is designed to replicate others of mid 1900s design as fitted to cars manufactured by Alvis and others. Both features conform to regulations - the horns are incapable of being operated as ‘twin tone?and the decal light has to be defined as ?any other lamp ?and is of low power and is diffused so cannot cause dazzle.
Forward facing foglamps and indicators remain entirely unmodified.
The original steering column mounted control stalks essentially retain their original functionality so there are no additional demands on the driver.
When sidelamps are switched on the central decal light is also illuminated.
Dip beam function is entirely standard.
Headlamp flash function is normal when other lights are off and when sidelamps only are switched on.
When dipped beam headlamps are switched on, headlamp flash operates the driving lamps - not the main beam filaments in order to make the signal more obvious.
When the controller is set to ?off ?main beam headlamps operate normally.
When the controller is set to ?swap ?main beam operates the driving lamps only.
When the controller is set to ?both ?main beam operates both main beam headlamps and the driving lamps.
There is a ?driving lamp flash ?function which can be used instead of headlamp flash - this is achieved by pressing both controller set buttons simultaneously.
All bulbs which are affected by the modifications are monitored - if any bulb fails then a red LED is illuminated on the dashboard.
The radiator grille has been refurbished - the chrome surround and lacquered Caspian Blue is standard trim for this vehicle as is the decal’s blue background. The driving lamps (1) have been fitted into the grille in a manner that retains the original style. The driving lamps are not marked ?E1 ?but this is not a requirement when fitted to vehicles first registered prior to 1986. The decal (2) is modified to transmit light from the rear but its appearance in daylight is indistinguishable from the standard.
This shows the decal in daylight on the left and illuminated at night on the right - the photography shows up variations in light transmission but the visual impression at the distance from which it is normally seen is much better than the picture suggests.
This is a view through the steering wheel of the left hand control stalk (indicators, headlamp dip / main and headlamp flash). It shows two brass push buttons that are convenient to operate but are easy to avoid when using the stalk control’s other functions. Pressing the ?SWAP ?button (1) for longer than half a second sets the driving lamp controller to ?swap ?mode. Pressing the ?BOTH ?button (2) for more than half a second sets the driving lamp controller to ?both ?mode. Pressing both buttons simultaneously (within half a second of each other) provides driving lamp flash and inhibits the mode setting function - any mode already set will remain unchanged by the flash function. The half second delay in mode setting ensures that ?simultaneous ?operation is easily accomplished, ensures that the mode setting inhibit operates without compromise, and protects against inadvertent operation of the push buttons.
This picture shows the rear of the left hand control stalk which has two extra push buttons that are also convenient to operate but do not conflict with normal operation of the control stalk. Push button 1 sets the driving lamp controller to ?off ?and is positioned too far away from the end of the stalk to interfere with the normal headlamp flash operation. Push button 2 operates the additional horn and is in a standard position for a stalk mounted horn push making its operation natural.
This is a view through the steering wheel of the instrument cluster and shows the additional LED display mounted in the upper steering column cowling.
LED 1 is amber and indicates that the driving lamps are in SWAP mode.
LED 2 is green and indicates correct operation of forward lighting.
LED 3 is red and indicates bulb or fuse failure of forward lighting.
LED 4 is amber and indicates that the driving lamps are in BOTH mode.
There is no brightness adjustment for the LEDs and all LED currents are set relatively low - because they all refer to external lighting they are only relevant when it is dark.
Much consideration was given to the functionality of LEDs 2 and 3 . The green LED continues to operate when any of the bulbs or fuses are operating correctly even if one bulb or fuse has blown and the red LED is operating as well - if this were a consumer product this could be confusing - however, where the driver fully understands the way this circuit operates it can provide additional information. It would be easy to combine this display into one LED which changed colour from green to red to indicate a fault - it might appear to be a ?smarter ?way of doing it - but this would provide a display which would be less obvious while driving - a colour change combined with a positional change is more readily noticed.
The green LED is very dull - there’s no real requirement for an indication of correct operation. The red LED however is significantly brighter in order to give clear warning of a problem.
The controller consists of two units - the control electronics and the relay box - refered to as the Control PCB and Control Box respectively.
The control electronics is implemented in 4000 series CMOS logic on a single PCB which is mounted inside the steering column lower cowling. Power for the PCB is derived locally from the ignition switch, logic 0v being derived from a local ground point. A 9 way control cable from the PCB is routed through the firewall and right hand wing to the control box that is located adjacent to the right hand headlamp unit.
Stalk switch and LED wiring is connected to the PCB using 0.1 inch pitch Molex connectors while the 9 way cable is connected via a miniature D type.
Control Stalk Wiring
LP1 14v 2w mes bulb
ZD1 15v 1.3w zener
IC1 4081B quad and
IC2 40106B hex invertor
IC3 4011B quad nand
IC4 4081B quad and
R1 2R2 10w
D1 to D12 1N4147
D13 to D16 1N4007
TR1 to TR4 BC107
TR5 to TR8 BC441
PCB Circuit Description
Ignition power enters the PCB at PL2 pin 1 and is limited to a maximum of 15v by LP1 and ZD1 then spikes are removed by R1 and C1. This power rail feeds all points marked ??, all ICs at pin 14, and feeds the stalk switches.
On power-up C8 is initially uncharged and clamps IC3 pin 1 low ensuring that the on / off bistable (IC3 a and b) remains in off mode. This is the only function of initial reset.
Switch returns from the stalk are at PL1 pins 2 through 5. ‘Both? ‘swap? and ‘DL Off?inputs have spike removal / switch de-bounce networks R2/C2, R4/C5, R6/R7. ‘Both?and ‘swap?inputs also have a half second time delay circuit comprising R8/C3 and R9/C6.
When ‘both?push button is pressed the input appears at PL1 pin 2. Provided this is the only input IC4 pin 3 will go high half a second later. Through invertor IC2c ( pins 8 and 9 ) this pulls IC3d pin 13 low which sets the mode bistable (IC3 c and d) is set to ‘both?mode, and through invertor IC2a (pins 1 and 2) and D11 sets the on / off bistable to ‘on? These two signals are ANDed in IC4d ( pins 11, 12 and 13 ) which provides a + input to TR2 which feeds TR3and provides a ‘both?output through D14.
The ‘swap?input works in the same manner.
When the ‘both?and ‘swap?inputs go high within half a second of each other the inputs to IC1d (pins 12 and 13) go high together producing a high on the output which provides a + input to TR1 which feeds TR5 and provides a ‘DL Flash?output through D13. The output of IC1 pin 11 also feeds through R10 and D4 to charge C4 and provide a + input to invertor IC2 at pin 13 - the low output from the invertor at pin 12 is fed to IC4 pins 1 and 5 which inhibits the outputs of these AND gates which prevents the inputs on pins 2 and 6 making any changes to either the mode bistable or the on / off bistable. Whatever mode that has previously been set therefore remains unchanged. The time constant C4 / R11 holds this inhibit for about one second to prevent any mode changes after the buttons are released - this allows for a difference in button release time of about three quarters of a second because the half second ‘on?delays of the ‘both?and ‘swap?inputs are reduced to a quarter of a second when they are going ‘off?due to the action of D2 and D6.
The ‘DL off?input is inverted through IC2b (pins 5 and 6) and pulls IC3 pin 1 low and sets the on / off bistable to off mode by the same process as initial reset.
Horn 2 input feeds a ‘standard?output stage consisting of R17 / TR4 / TR8.
All the PCB outputs drive relays in the control box. The relay 0v connections are returned directly to the control PCB - there is no other ground connection in the control box - this helps to ensure that the CMOS are subject to the least electrical interference possible.
Control Box Connections
Control Box Circuit
Control Box Component List
RL1 to RL4 12v relay 30 amp contacts
RL5 to RL10 12v relay miniature
CS1 to CS8 Current Sensors - see below
D1 to D17 1N4007
D17 to D23 1N4148
Current sensors consist of a reed switch inside a coil. The coil is designed to take the full current of each individual filament and to cope with any overload so that the associated fuse will blow first under severe fault conditions. The sensitivity of each reed has been measured before fitting and chosen in conjunction with the number of turns on each coil so that the reed will switch on when each filament is drawing a current which is 5% less than the minimum for the type of bulb used at the lowest voltage likely to be present. This current is between 70% and 80% of the normal filament current.
Current Sensor Sensitivities
Control Box Circuit Description
Relay drive signals operate the relay logic to provide the required functions. High power relays (RL1 to RL4) switch current derived from a fuse provided for each function and is fed to a current sensor for each filament individually.
The drive to each power relay is also fed through both current sensor reeds assigned to each function and, providing both current sensors operate, then to a miniature relay (RL7 to RL10) which is used for fault notification. Provided each filament of a pair is working correctly the relay will operate and supply current through a diode (D11, D13, D15, D17) to provide drive to the ‘OK?LED on the steering column cowling.
If a bulb fails, or if the main fuse driving that function fails, then the appropriate fault notification relay will not operate which will allow the power relay drive voltage to drive current through a diode (D10, D12, D14, D16) to provide drive to the ‘FAULT?LED on the steering column cowling.
A feed is taken from the vehicle’s normal sidelamp circuit and connected to pin 7 of the D type input connector. This drives RL9 and the decal lamp directly. RL9 switches and provides power to the sidelamps via CS7 and CS8. Provided that both filaments are intact and drawing normal current the reed switches in CS7 and CS8 close and drive is fed to RL10 - the sidelamp feed thereby also feeds the ‘OK?LED via D17. If one or both of the filaments or fuse F4 are open circuit then the relevant current sensor reed switch will be inoperable so that RL10 will not be energised - this causes the sidelamp feed to illuminate the ‘FAULT?LED via D16.
When dipped headlamps are switched on RL1 operates supplying power to the dip beam filaments - filament and / or fuse fail LEDs being driven by the same method as descibed above for the sidelamps. RL5 is also driven via D2 so that if main beam is operated at the same time by use of headlamp flash the drive is diverted by RL5 to operate RL3 via D3 which applies power to the driving lamps instead of the main beam filaments. The intended observer sees the flash coming from a different position from the dipped beam headlamps so the signal is much less likely to be confused with other effects such as occur when a vehicle encounters a bump in the road where dipped beam headlamps can appear to flash - the signal is more obvious because it is not coming from a lamp which is already illuminated.
When headlamp main beam is operated normally (driving lamps set to ‘off? drive is fed via the normally close contacts of RL5 to operate RL2 which switches power to the main beam filaments via a standard current sensing circuit. Drive is also fed to a contact on RL6.
When the driving lamps are set to ‘both?mode RL6 is operated and if a main beam signal is also present RL3 is operated via D5 which operates RL3 which in turn applies power to the driving lamps via a standard current sensing circuit.
When the driving lamps are set to ‘swap?mode RL5 is energised via D1 and RL5 diverts the main beam signal via D3 to RL3 which operates the driving lamps.
Under any conditions the ‘flash?signal is capable of operating RL3 via D4 to flash the driving lamps.
When the ignition is turned on the driving lamp system defaults to ‘off?mode enabling the forward lighting to be operated normally but provides a red LED warning in the event of fuse or bulb failure.
Driving lamps flash may be used instead of headlamp flash.
Driving lamps can be included in the main beam function or can replace the main beam function.
Switching between driving lamp ‘off?‘both?and ‘swap?functions can be achieved in advance of the circumstances that may require it or at the time of the circumstance itself.
All lighting remains compliant with the relevant Statutory Instruments.
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